America’s Fighters of the 1980s: F-16 and F-18 (Warbirds by Robert C. Stern

By Robert C. Stern

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2 ft. 2 ft. 9 ft; in this region the temperature increases linearly with altitude. In fact, the most common flight conditions occur within the troposphere. An analytical formula for the empirical atmospheric temperature variation in the troposphere is given by where h is expressed in ft. In the tropopause, the empirical atmospheric temperature variation is given by In the stratosphere, the empirical atmospheric temperature variation is given by where h is expressed in ft. 6), using the value for the sea level atmospheric pressure, to determine the analytical expression for the pressure within the troposphere as where p0 and T0 are the pressure and the temperature at sea level, respectively, and a0 is the constant slope of the temperature variation with altitude in the troposphere: This then allows determination of the atmospheric pressure at the highest altitude in the troposphere or, equivalently, the lowest altitude in the tropopause.

The onset of turbulence is primarily influenced by the Reynolds number and the deflection of the streamlines, due to the presence of the airfoil, from its free stream flow direction. Such models are not required for the analysis of steady flow properties and associated steady flight characteristics of aircraft. Note that the Mach number is a dimensionless quantity. 85 < M, then compressibility effects are significant. The general approach for analysis of steady flight is, however, applicable to transonic, supersonic, and even hypersonic flight if suitable aerodynamics models are utilized.

For the purposes of steady flight analysis, the stall constraint can be represented by the inequality or, equivalently, by the inequality where αmax is the maximum angle of attack at stall and the constants satisfy The following Matlab commands produce a plot that illustrates the linear dependence of the lift coefficient on the angle of attack for a typical aircraft. 6; this defines the point at which the aircraft stalls. The direction of the drag force vector is opposite to the velocity vector of the aircraft.

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